# Perimeter of Squares in a Rectangle in Java

## The challenge

The drawing shows 6 squares the sides of which have a length of 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8. It’s easy to see that the sum of the perimeters of these squares is : `4 * (1 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 5 + 8) = 4 * 20 = 80`

Could you give the sum of the perimeters of all the squares in a rectangle when there are n + 1 squares disposed in the same manner as in the drawing:

#### Ref:

The function perimeter has for parameter n where n + 1 is the number of squares (they are numbered from 0 to n) and returns the total perimeter of all the squares.

``````perimeter(5)  should return 80
perimeter(7)  should return 216
``````

## The solution in Java code

Option 1:

``````import java.math.BigInteger;

public class SumFct {
public static BigInteger perimeter(BigInteger n) {

BigInteger a = BigInteger.ZERO;
BigInteger b = BigInteger.ONE;
BigInteger c = BigInteger.ONE;
BigInteger sum = BigInteger.ZERO;

for(int i = 0; i <= n.intValue(); i++) {
a = b;
b = c;
c = a.add(b);
sum = sum.add(a);
}

return sum.multiply(BigInteger.valueOf(4));
}
}
``````

Option 2:

``````import java.math.BigInteger;

public class SumFct {
public static BigInteger perimeter(BigInteger n) {

BigInteger a = BigInteger.ZERO;
BigInteger b = BigInteger.ONE;
BigInteger c = BigInteger.ONE;
BigInteger sum = BigInteger.ZERO;

for(int i = 0; i <= n.intValue(); i++) {
a = b;
b = c;
c = a.add(b);
sum = sum.add(a);
}

return sum.multiply(BigInteger.valueOf(4));
}
}
``````

Option 3:

``````import java.math.BigInteger;
public class SumFct {
public static BigInteger perimeter(BigInteger n) {
BigInteger fibSum = BigInteger.ONE;
BigInteger previousFibValue = BigInteger.ZERO;
BigInteger currentFibValue = BigInteger.ONE;

for (BigInteger i = BigInteger.ONE; i.compareTo(n) < 1; i = i.add(BigInteger.ONE)) {
currentFibValue = currentFibValue.add(previousFibValue);
previousFibValue = currentFibValue.subtract(previousFibValue);
fibSum = fibSum.add(currentFibValue);
}
return fibSum.multiply(BigInteger.valueOf(4));
}
}
``````

## Test cases to validate our solution

``````import static org.junit.Assert.*;
import java.math.BigInteger;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Random;
import org.junit.Test;

public class SumFctTest {
private static HashMap<BigInteger, BigInteger> cache = new HashMap<BigInteger, BigInteger>();
private static BigInteger ONE  = BigInteger.ONE;
private static BigInteger ZERO = BigInteger.ZERO;

public static BigInteger fib(BigInteger n) {
if (n.equals(ZERO)) return ZERO;
if (n.equals(ONE))  return ONE;
if (cache.containsKey(n)) return cache.get(n);

// odd
if (n.testBit(0)) {
BigInteger n2 = n.shiftRight(1);
BigInteger n3 = n2.add(ONE);
BigInteger result = fib(n2).multiply(fib(n2)).add(fib(n3).multiply(fib(n3)));
cache.put(n, result);
return result;
}
// even
else {
BigInteger n2 = n.shiftRight(1);
BigInteger n3 = n2.subtract(ONE);
BigInteger result = fib(n2).multiply(fib(n2).add(fib(n3).add(fib(n3))));
cache.put(n, result);
return result;
}
}

public static BigInteger solution(BigInteger n) {
return (fib(n.add(BigInteger.valueOf(3))).subtract(BigInteger.valueOf(1))).multiply(BigInteger.valueOf(4));
}

@Test
public void test1() {
assertEquals(BigInteger.valueOf(80), SumFct.perimeter(BigInteger.valueOf(5)));
}
@Test
public void test2() {
assertEquals(BigInteger.valueOf(216), SumFct.perimeter(BigInteger.valueOf(7)));
}
@Test
public void test3() {
assertEquals(BigInteger.valueOf(14098308), SumFct.perimeter(BigInteger.valueOf(30)));
}
@Test
public void test4() {
BigInteger r = new BigInteger("6002082144827584333104");
assertEquals(r, SumFct.perimeter(BigInteger.valueOf(100)));
}
@Test
public void test5() {
BigInteger r = new BigInteger("2362425027542282167538999091770205712168371625660854753765546783141099308400948230006358531927265833165504");
assertEquals(r, SumFct.perimeter(BigInteger.valueOf(500)));
}

@Test
public void test6() {
System.out.println("****** Random test ******");
Random rnd = new Random();
for (int i = 0; i < 25; i++) {
int a = Math.round(rnd.nextInt(1000) * (65 - 10) + 10000);
System.out.println("Perimeter for : " + a);
assertEquals(SumFctTest.solution(BigInteger.valueOf(a)), SumFct.perimeter(BigInteger.valueOf(a)));
}
}

}
``````